Chapter 24: Leadership, Delegation, and Collaboration
The term leadership
is defined as the process of influencing others toward the achievement
of goals. Philosophers and leaders from the time of Aristotle have
debated whether leadership is innate or learned. The modern study
of leadership began in the early 20th century when scientific management
principles were first applied.
frameworks (transformational, servant, emotional intelligence, and
the Collins leadership model) have been advanced. Transformational
leadership is leadership that (1) promotes justice, equality,
and human rights; and (2) endorses honesty, loyalty, and fairness
as a basis for influencing change. Servant leadership is
leadership based on the needs of others. Leaders employing the emotional
intelligence model value self-direction in others. The Collins
leadership level model describes five levels of leadership,
the highest of which focuses on the contributions of team members.
and “management” are often used interchangeably. However,
management is the accomplishment of tasks, either by oneself
or by directing others; and leadership is the interpersonal
process that involves motivating and guiding others to achieve goals.
to use one of four leadership styles; but effective leaders use
situational leadership, a blend of styles based on the
current circumstances. The four leadership styles (autocratic, consultative,
democratic or participative, and laissez-faire) range from tight
control to little control. In the autocratic leadership style,
the leader maintains control, makes all of the decisions, and solves
all the problems. In the consultative leadership style,
leaders must sell their decisions to subordinates. Democratic
leadership is also known as participative leadership. In democratic
leadership, every member has input and communication is open and
mutual. In laissez-faire leadership style, the responsibilities
are assumed by the group, the leader does not set limits, and the
leader does not state expectations.
use helpful communication, are credible, collaborate with others,
delegate to others, and use critical thinking when making decisions.
Collaboration involves working within multidisciplinary
teams with common goals and mutual trust. Delegation is the process
of transferring a selected task in a situation to an individual
who is competent to perform that specific task.
team members occurs on three levels: within the individual, between
individuals/within groups, and between groups. Conflict is natural
and eventually inevitable. Conflict can be handled with accommodation
(giving aggrieved parties what they want), pressing (using
assertive behavior to get what you want), avoidance (hoping
that time will take care of the problem), or negotiation
(working with other parties to obtain a win-win solution).
must adequately manage the resources provided by the organization.
Most nursing managers operate on a fiscally sound budget that estimates
their unit’s revenues and expenses. Expenses can be direct
(attributable to the department) or indirect (allocated
from the operation of the larger organization).
Three maxims are applicable
at all levels of nursing organizations: nursing leadership is based
on values, nursing leaders are change agents, and nursing leaders
must be self-aware. Nursing leaders must be change agents because
the health care system and society constantly change. Nursing leaders
need to be able to anticipate the changes that will be needed and
possess the courage to guide the organizations into those changes.