Online Companion: A Guidance Approach for the Encouraging Classroom, 4e

Chapter 1

APPLICATION ACTIVITIES

Application activities allow students to interrelate material from the text with real-life situations. The observations imply access to practicum experiences; the interviews, access to parents and teachers. For an additional assignment, students might compare or contrast observations and interviews with referenced ideas from the chapter.

  1. Pioneers of the guidance tradition
    1. Each of the pioneers advocated teaching practices that empower children to be active, involved learners. Observe a classroom in which such teaching is in practice. What kind of guidance/discipline practices do you see in use?
    2. Interview an early childhood teacher or college professor who has studied the work of Froebel, Montessori, Dewey, or Piaget. What does the person believe to be significant about how the pioneer educator thought about discipline issues?
  2. Mid-20th-century influences in the guidance tradition
    1. An emphasis of the self psychologists is support of the child's self-esteem. Observe an instance in the classroom when an adult supported a child's self-esteem. What did the teacher say and do? How did the child respond?
    2. Interview a teacher who values the ideas of either Dreikurs or Ginott. What is important to the teacher in the psychologist's writings?
  3. Discipline trends in the 1980s
    1. Observe an instance in a classroom when a teacher intervened to stop a conflict or disruptive situation. Respecting privacy, how did the adult teach or fail to teach more appropriate social skills through the intervention? Did the teacher use guidance or traditional discipline? Why do you think so?
    2. One issue raised in the debate of the obedience discipline systems of the 1980s is the role of punishment. Interview a teacher about what she considers to be the difference between guidance and punishment. When, if ever, does the teacher believe punishment is justified?
  4. The guidance tradition today
    1. Developmentally appropriate practice responds to the level of development and the needs of each child. Observe an instance of developmentally appropriate practice in a classroom. What are typical behaviors of the children? How does the teacher handle any problems that may arise?
    2. Interview two teachers at the prekindergarten to third-grade level who are familiar with the term developmentally appropriate practice. How are the teachers' comments similar? How are the comments different?
  5. Parent-Teacher relations in the guidance tradition
    1. Observe an instance of productive parent-teacher relations at work. What seem to be the benefits of the productive relationship for the child in the classroom?
    2. Interview a teacher who has taught for five or more years. Talk with the teacher about how her views have changed or stayed the same regarding parent-teacher relations.

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RECOMMENDED READINGS

Bakley, S. (1997). Love a little more, accept a little more. Young Children, 52(2), 21.

Copple, C., & Bredekamp, S. (2005). Basics of developmentally appropriate practice. Washington, DC: Natural Association for the Education of Young Children.

Carlsson-Paige, N., & Levin, D. E. (1998). Before push comes to shove: Building conflict resolution skills with children. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

Elkind, D. (2005). Viewpoint. Early childhood amnesia: Reaffirming children's need for developmentally appropriate programs. Young Children, 60(4), 38-40.

Geist, E., & Baum, A. C. (2005). Yeah but's that keep teachers from embracing an active curriculum: Overcoming the resistance. Young Children, 60(4), 28-36.

National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2005). Resources on developmentally appropriate practice in 2005: Updates from the field. Young Children, 60(4), 55-56.

Vartuli, S. (2005). Research in review. Beliefs: The heart of teaching. Young Children, 60(5), 76-85.

Wurm, P. (2005). Working in the Reggio way: A beginner's guide for American teachers. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

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WEB LINKS

Note: The following list of materials does not necessarily indicate author endorsement.

  1. National Association for the Education of Young Children http://www.naeyc.org/
  2. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory http://www.ncrel.org Choose Pathways to School Improvement > Assessment > NCREL Essay: What Does Research Say About Early Childhood Education?
  3. Children's Defense Fund http://www.childrensdefense.org/
  4. Children, Youth, and Families Consortium http://www.cyfc.umn.edu/
  5. National Black Child Development Institute http://www.nbcdi.org/
  6. Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) http://www.acei.org National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education http://www.ed.gov/
    Advanced Search > Select Ed.gov archives > In "Contains" field, enter "Helping children cope with disaster" > choose "Archived: ED/OERI: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education"
  7. Canada's Schoolnet Staff Room http://www.schoolnet.ca/
    Choose English

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AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES

[Common Threads] www.insight-media.com

[The Creation of Childhood] www.insight-media.com

[Observing Children] www.insight-media.com

[What Is This Thing Called Self-Esteem-1] www.cev-inc.com

AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS

Note: The following list of materials does not necessarily indicate author endorsement.

Common Threads. This video chronicles the history of education in the United States from the colonial period to the present. It examines how curricula have evolved, how the purposes of education have changed over time, and how technology affects modern education. Insight Media, 121 West 85th Street, New York, NY 10024. 1-800-233-9910.

The Creation of Childhood. This video explores childhood throughout history. Insight Media, 121 West 85th Street, New York, NY 10024. 1-800-233-9910.

Observing Children. This video emphasizes the importance of observing children carefully and pinpoints specific observable behaviors. Insight Media, 121 West 85th Street, New York, NY 10024. 1-800-233-9910.

What Is This Thing Called Self-Esteem-1. This video defines self-esteem and emphasizes the ability to distinguish between behaviors that indicate low self-esteem and positive self-esteem. Creative Education Video, PO Box 65265, Lubbock, TX 69424-5265. 1-800-922-9965.

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CHAPTER RELEVANT WEB SITES

Note: The following list of materials does not necessarily indicate author endorsement.

GENERAL RESOURCES/FOUNDATIONS

  1. National Association for the Education of Young Children http://www.naeyc.org/
  2. North Central Regional Educational Center http://www.ncrel.org/
    Choose Pathways to School Improvement > Assessment > NCREL Essay: What Does Research Say About Early Childhood Education?
  3. Children's Defense Fund http://www.childrensdefense.org/
  4. ERIC Clearinghouse http://www.eric.ed.gov
  5. Children, Youth, and Families Consortium http://www.cyfc.umn.edu/
  6. National Black Child Development Institute http://www.nbcdi.org/
  7. Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) http://www.acei.org
  8. National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education > http://www.ed.gov
    Advanced Search > Select Ed.gov archives > In "Contains" field, enter "Helping children cope with disaster" > choose "Archived: ED/OERI: National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education"
  9. Canada's Schoolnet Staff Room http://www.schoolnet.ca
    Choose English

PREVIEW

ONE The Guidance Tradition

Chapter One provides historical overview of the guidance tradition. Direct quotes by pioneers in the field are included to document their own thoughts about education and the role of guidance. Mid-20th-century influences of the developmental and self psychologists are traced. The trend away from punishment and toward guidance in the 1980s and 1990s is presented. The tradition of parent-teacher partnerships within the guidance approach is explored.

TWO Child Development and Guidance

Chapter Two explores child development theories of the last 70 years and discusses the relation of each to guidance principles. The developmental theories are those of Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, Gardner, and Goleman. An overview of important findings from brain research and attachment theory, and the implications for guidance of each is provided. The conclusion that guidance is the approach to children's behavior that comes closest to the essence of our growing understanding about child development is presented.

THREE Mistaken Behavior/Challenging Behavior

Chapter Three presents a concept in line with the work of the self psychologists for understanding young children's behavior: that behavior traditionally considered as misbehavior is more constructively viewed as mistaken behavior. Three levels of mistaken behavior are analyzed. Considerations for acquainting parents with the concept of mistaken behavior are discussed.

FOUR Guidance: The Bottom Line

Chapter Four develops four principles of a guidance approach: that it means teachers are professionals, not technicians; builds from positive teacher-child relations; reduces the need for mistaken behavior; takes a solution-orientation; includes liberation teaching; and involves parent-teacher partnerships.

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GUIDING QUESTIONS

Who were the pioneers of the guidance tradition?

Who were mid-20th-century influences in the guidance tradition?

What was the significance of discipline trends in the 1980s?

What is the state of the guidance tradition today?

What is the importance of parent-teacher relations in the guidance tradition?

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DISCUSSION ACTIVITY

Think about a teacher at any stage of your education who most embodied guidance in his or her teaching. What qualities or skills characterized the teacher's approach? What is a main insight you have gained from the teacher who is assisting you in your professional development? How does this insight relate to what the chapter says about guidance and its use in the classroom?

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